Genotype and Genetic Compatibility in Human and Organisms

Filed in Health by on December 18, 2018 0 Comments

This expository article seeks to explain the necessary things you need to know about Genotype and genetic compatibility in human and organisms.

Knowing your genetic status is one important thing one should know especially when it comes to the period of taking a life partner.

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Genotype and Genetic Compatibility in Human and Organisms

Explaining Genotype – Photo Source: https://examples.yourdictionary.com

A genotype is a set of genes of the cells in the body, localised in the nucleus (chromosomes) or in different replicate structures in the cytoplasm (mitochondria, plastics and plasmids, etc) which determines the characteristics of the body (phenotype).

Genotype is one of the three factors that determine phenotype (Characteristics) alongside with inherited epigenetic factors and non-inherited environmental factors.

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It is pertinent to note that it is not all organisms that possess similar or same genotype look or act the same way. This is so because behaviour and appearance are adapted as a result of environmental and growing conditions. In a similar manner, not all organism that look alike necessary possess the same genotype.

Genotype and Phenotype are two different things entirely, Genotype is a set of genes in the cells while Phenotype is the outcome of genotype.

Simply put, Phenotype is the characteristics possessed as a result of the kind of gene present in an organism. One can study genotype by observing DNA while Phenotype can be studied by observing the outward appearance of an organism.

Organisms with the same genotype growing in different external environment will have distinctive features irrespective of the fact that they possess the same genotype.

There are four major types of Genotype
Genotype AA
Genotype AS
Genotype SS
Genotype AC

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SS and AC are the anomalous  genotypes or the sickle cells. It is very important that you know your Genotype before choosing a life partner because there may be compatibility issues which could have devastating effects when it cares to conception.

Persons with sickle cells experience severe pains in their body parts where oxygen flow is restricted due to blockage in the blood vessels.

AA can marry anybody
AS is better off with AA

AS and AS, AS and AC are risky types of genotype.
Two sickle cells are not advised to get married to each other. In the case of an albino with a recessive allele (aa), the phenotype depends on the other allele (Aa, aA, aa or AA).

An affected person mating with a heterozygous individual (Aa or aA, also carrier) there is a 50-50 possibility that the offspring will be albino’s phenotype.

If a heterozygote mates with another heterozygote, there is 75% possibility of passing the gene on and only a 25% possibility that the gene will be displayed.

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An individual with  homozygous dominant (AA) has a normal phenotype and no risk of abnormal offspring. And, an individual with homozygous recessive has an abnormal phenotype and is guaranteed to pass the abnormal gene onto offspring.

In the case of hemophilia, it is sex-linked and so, only carries on the X chromosome. Only a female person can be a carrier in which the anomaly is not displayed.

This woman has a normal phenotype, but runs a 50-50 chance, with an unaffected partner, passing her abnormal gene on to her offspring. Therefore, if she mates with a man with haemophilia (another carrier) there would be a 75% chance of passing on the gene.

Genotype and Blood Group connection:

It is evident that four groups of human blood are stipulated by the inheritance of three alleles of a single gene (Ja, Jb, i).

Thus I(0) group is stipulated by a recessive allele (i) which is dominated by the as allele Ja, defining group II, and allele B, which depends on group III.

Alleles Ja and Jb in the heterozygotes are determinants of IV group, that is, where there is a codominance:

I. blood type happens only with genotype ii;
II. with genotypes Ja, Ja and Jai;
III. when genotypes Jb, Jb and Jbi;
IV. with genotype Ja, Jb.

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The principle of inheritance of blood group functions in place of concealed cases of forensic examination in order to exclude paternity.

It is pertinent to note that by blood, it is impossible to conclude that this man is the father of the child. It can only be said if he could be the father of the child or paternity is excluded.

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